Showing posts with the label macroeconomics

Net Economics #Classical Economists and their work# Economic theory

 Net Economics #Classical Economists and their work# Economic theory Pls follow , like and share Classical economics, also known as classical political economy, is a school of economic thought that emerged in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. It laid the foundation for modern economics and was dominant until the late 19th century. Classical economists focused on understanding the mechanisms of economic growth, production, and distribution of goods and services in market economies significant contributions and the years in which they were active: Adam Smith (1723-1790): Major Work: "The Wealth of Nations" (1776) Contributions: Smith is often referred to as the father of economics. In "The Wealth of Nations," he introduced the concept of the invisible hand, arguing that individuals pursuing their own self-interest in a free market economy unintentionally promote the general welfare. He also discussed the division of labor, productivity, and the role of markets i

Mercantile theory

Mercantile theory    Mercantilism was an economic theory prevalent from the 16th to the 18th centuries, emphasizing the importance of a nation's wealth in terms of accumulating precious metals, especially gold and silver. Here are key aspects of the mercantile theory: Bullionism : Mercantilists believed that a nation's wealth was determined by the amount of precious metals it possessed. The goal was to export more goods than import, ensuring a surplus that could be settled in gold or silver. Balance of Trade : Mercantilists emphasized maintaining a positive balance of trade, where a nation exports more goods than it imports. This would lead to a flow of gold and silver into the country, increasing its wealth. Colonialism and Imperialism : Mercantilism often justified colonial expansion as a means to secure valuable resources and markets. Colonies were viewed as sources of raw materials and as captive markets for the mother country's finished goods. Protectionism : Mercantil

SEBI ACT 1992 UGC Net and other competitive Exam

Vol1 Vol 2 SEBI ACT 1992 UGC Net and other competitive Exam (1)This Act may be called the  Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992 .  (2) It extends to the whole of India.  (3) It shall be deemed to have come into force on the 30th day of January, 1992. AMMENDMENT Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992 (As amended by the Finance Act, 2021 (13 of 2021) w.e.f. April 1, 2021 Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956 (As amended by the International Financial Services Centres Authority Act, 2019 w.e.f.  October  01, 2020 RULES and REGULATION of SEBI 1)SEBI (Procedure for Holding Inquiry and Imposing Penalties) Rules, 1995 2) SEBI (Annual Report) Rules, 1994 3)  SEBI (Form of Annual Statement of Accounts and Records) Rules, 1994 4)  SEBI (Appeal to Central Government) Rules, 1993 5) SEBI procedures for holding Enquiry  Rules 1995 6) Depositories Rule 1998 7) Securities contract Rules2000  

Macroeconomic threats to Indian economy

Macroeconomic threats to Indian economy     Indian economy is going through a turbulent period with key indicators hinting at a prolonged slowdown. The coronavirus pandemic has weakened all sectors of the Indian economy since April and a recovery seems unlikely this year. From contraction in growth to rising inflation and unemployment, challenges are aplenty. The sharply surging coronavirus cases make the case for recovery worse. India’s GDP growth is expected to remain in negative zone for the entire year and projections for June quarter signal how adversely Covid-19 has disrupted the livelihood, particularly of the poor. recent SBI Ecowrap report said the national GDP may contract by 16.5 per cent in the first quarter of the current fiscal. The report also mentioned that India’s economic recovery could take much longer than expected. The annual GDP is forecast to sink over 5.1 per cent. This will mark the weakest GDP growth rate in over four decades.  five major challenges that Ma

UGC NET ,UPSC and other Competitive exams Concept of Cash and Money (Macroeconomics)

UGC NET ,UPSC and other Competitive exams  Concept of Cash and Money (Macroeconomics) Money Concept Cash is any thing or obvious record that is commonly acknowledged as installment for merchandise and ventures and reimbursement of obligations, for example, charges, in a specific nation or financial setting. The fundamental elements of cash are recognized as: a mode of trade, a unit of record, a store of significant worth and now and then, a standard of conceded payment.Any thing or irrefutable record that satisfies these capacities can be considered as cash. Cash is truly a new market wonder building up an item cash, yet almost all contemporary cash frameworks depend on fiat money.Fiat cash, similar to any check or note of obligation, is without use an incentive as a physical ware. It determines its incentive by being announced by an administration to be lawful delicate; that is, it must be acknowledged as a fullment inside the limits of the nation, for "all ob

UGC NET, UPSC and other competitive exam Financial approach or Monetary cash balance approach by Central Bank

UGC NET, UPSC and other competitive exam Financial approach or Monetary cash balance approach by Central Bank Financial approach Financial approach is the arrangement embraced by the fiscal authority of a nation that controls either the loan cost payable on momentary obtaining or the cash supply, frequently focusing on expansion or the financing cost to guarantee value soundness and general trust in the money. Objective of Financial objective 1) Not at all like financial approach which depends on government to spend out of downturns, fiscal arrangement plans to control the cash supply, for example 'printing' more cash or diminishing the cash supply by changing loan costs or evacuating overabundance holds. 2) Further objectives of a money related approach are for the most part to add to the steadiness of GDP , to accomplish and keep up low joblessness, and to keep up unsurprising trade rates with different monetary forms. Fiscal financial aspects

UGC NET ,UPSC and other competition Exams National BANK OF INDIA (RBI) Cash Money ConceptMACRO ECONOMICS

UGC NET ,UPSC and other competition Exams National BANK OF INDIA (RBI) ,Cash Money concept MACRO ECONOMICS  UGC NET ,UPSC and other competition Exams  National BANK OF INDIA (RBI) ,Cash Money concept MACRO ECONOMICS                                     Central Bank of India National bank (RBI), Cental  bank, or financial authority is an organization that deals with the cash, cash supply, and loan fees of a state or formal money related association, and administers their business banking framework. As opposed to a business bank, a national bank has a syndication on expanding the money related base in the state, and furthermore by and large controls the printing of the national currency,which fills in as the state's legitimate tender.A national bank additionally goes about as a moneylender after all other options have run out to the financial area during times of monetary emergency. Most national banks additionally have supervisory and administrative forces to guarantee

UGC NET ,UPSC and other Competitive Exams US Central bank (U.S.A) Supply of Cash Money Concept, pub-3084614342339514, DIRECT, f08c47fec0942fa0 UGC NET ,UPSC and other UGC UGC NET,UPSC and other Competitive Exams US Central bank (U.S.A) Supply of Cash Money Concept The US Central bank distributed information on three financial totals until 2006, when it stopped production of M3 information ( On Walk 23, 2006, the Leading group of Governors of the Central bank Framework will stop production of the M3 money related total.) and just distributed information on M1 and M2. M1 comprises of cash ordinarily utilized for installment . Money available for use and financial records adjusts; and M2 incorporates M1 in addition to balances that by and large are like exchange accounts and that, generally, can be changed over reasonably promptly to M1 with almost no loss of head. The M2 measure is believed to be held essentially by family units. Preceding its stopping, M3 included M2 in addition to specific records that are held by elements other than people and are given by b

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